Open Access and Peer-reviewed
Home Journal Issues Guide for Authors Editorial Board Aims & Scope About Journal News & Announcements


Research Article 


COVID-19 Pandemic: Facebook Hate Speech in Escalation of Interethnic & Sectarian Hatred

Sumaira Zakir, Adila Batool, Fariha Zakir, Sumaira Farman, Shahida Batool.

Abstract
In a technologically fast paced world, social media has no doubt shrunk the distances yet has equally put humankind in a power position to change the course of its life, society and state with a mere click publishing and reshaping the unique content to an unlimited sea of audience. In the wake of the Covid-19 uncertainty the existing biases flooded not only in the public offices but also social media, i.e. Facebook and Whatsapp. The fragile inter-ethnic and inter sectarian peace of Quetta suffered as insecurities among citizens were on the rise forming the ripe conditions for an ethno-sectarian violent situation which also could take turn into either genocide or civil war.This research attempts to explore this phenomenon by investigating the role of Hate Speech over Facebook and analyzing its effects on inter-ethnic and inter-sectarian relations in Quetta. Research questions how the hate speech over Facebook goes viral and has a hand in the violent incidents in the city. This study also attempts to find how naive common citizens perceive certain hate statements and in turn how the hate speech shapes the pre-existing biases and beliefs. Facebook posts of specified time period were analyzed into the frame of the Speech Act Theory. The outcome of the study shows that a majority of students were able to identify the hate speech and verify that their opinions were not affected by it. Moreover that the physical world changes and unrest causes a wave of hate speech over Facebook, which in turn incites more violent developments in the physical world as the hate speech publishers and writers are well hidden behind the screens with fake identities and thus can incite violence playing with words on any agenda.

Key words: ethno-sectarian violent, Hate Speech, Speech Act Theory


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Sumaira Zakir
Articles by Adila Batool
Articles by Fariha Zakir
Articles by Sumaira Farman
Articles by Shahida Batool
on Google
on Google Scholar


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Sumaira Zakir, Adila Batool, Fariha Zakir, Sumaira Farman, Shahida Batool. COVID-19 Pandemic: Facebook Hate Speech in Escalation of Interethnic & Sectarian Hatred. EEO. 2021; 20(5): 1699-1708. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.186


Web Style

Sumaira Zakir, Adila Batool, Fariha Zakir, Sumaira Farman, Shahida Batool. COVID-19 Pandemic: Facebook Hate Speech in Escalation of Interethnic & Sectarian Hatred. http://ilkogretim-online.org//?mno=59915 [Access: April 09, 2021]. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.186


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Sumaira Zakir, Adila Batool, Fariha Zakir, Sumaira Farman, Shahida Batool. COVID-19 Pandemic: Facebook Hate Speech in Escalation of Interethnic & Sectarian Hatred. EEO. 2021; 20(5): 1699-1708. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.186



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Sumaira Zakir, Adila Batool, Fariha Zakir, Sumaira Farman, Shahida Batool. COVID-19 Pandemic: Facebook Hate Speech in Escalation of Interethnic & Sectarian Hatred. EEO. (2021), [cited April 09, 2021]; 20(5): 1699-1708. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.186



Harvard Style

Sumaira Zakir, Adila Batool, Fariha Zakir, Sumaira Farman, Shahida Batool (2021) COVID-19 Pandemic: Facebook Hate Speech in Escalation of Interethnic & Sectarian Hatred. EEO, 20 (5), 1699-1708. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.186



Turabian Style

Sumaira Zakir, Adila Batool, Fariha Zakir, Sumaira Farman, Shahida Batool. 2021. COVID-19 Pandemic: Facebook Hate Speech in Escalation of Interethnic & Sectarian Hatred. Elementary Education Online, 20 (5), 1699-1708. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.186



Chicago Style

Sumaira Zakir, Adila Batool, Fariha Zakir, Sumaira Farman, Shahida Batool. "COVID-19 Pandemic: Facebook Hate Speech in Escalation of Interethnic & Sectarian Hatred." Elementary Education Online 20 (2021), 1699-1708. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.186



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Sumaira Zakir, Adila Batool, Fariha Zakir, Sumaira Farman, Shahida Batool. "COVID-19 Pandemic: Facebook Hate Speech in Escalation of Interethnic & Sectarian Hatred." Elementary Education Online 20.5 (2021), 1699-1708. Print. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.186



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Sumaira Zakir, Adila Batool, Fariha Zakir, Sumaira Farman, Shahida Batool (2021) COVID-19 Pandemic: Facebook Hate Speech in Escalation of Interethnic & Sectarian Hatred. Elementary Education Online, 20 (5), 1699-1708. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.186








AUTHOR LOGIN

REVIEWER LOGIN

Indexed
&
Abstracted


Indexing

İlköğretim Online (IOO) - Elementary Education Online (EEO) is indexed in:


ABOUT JOURNAL
POLICIES
STATEMENTS