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Research Article 


Sustainable Supply of Spring Water as a Social Challenge: A study of Seasonal Variations at Sikkim

Asha Subba, M. Pandey, Sangeeta Jha, Ajeya Jha, Karma Gurmey Dolma.

Abstract
The common source of drinking water in the rural areas of east Sikkim is dhara, the natural spring. Owing to derive environmental factors such as rain water, landslide, soil erosion, waste from human and animal, it gets polluted directly or indirectly the water sources. The natural spring water from the selected areas are analysed in terms of physical parameters. Physical properties like temperature, pH, turbidity, salinity, total dissolved solids, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and hardness. The objective of the study is to determine the quality of natural spring water used for drinking and other domestic purpose in the rural areas of east Sikkim. All the observed values are compared with the Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) guidelines. All the physical parameters are found within the permissible limit of Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) in all the three seasons. ANOVA and Correlation matrix reflect variations across seasons and moderate correlation across two phases of the study.

Key words: Sikkim (India) temperature, pH, turbidity, salinity, total dissolved solids, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, hardness.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Asha Subba, M. Pandey, Sangeeta Jha, Ajeya Jha, Karma Gurmey Dolma. Sustainable Supply of Spring Water as a Social Challenge: A study of Seasonal Variations at Sikkim. EEO. 2021; 20(5): 2396-2401. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.261


Web Style

Asha Subba, M. Pandey, Sangeeta Jha, Ajeya Jha, Karma Gurmey Dolma. Sustainable Supply of Spring Water as a Social Challenge: A study of Seasonal Variations at Sikkim. http://ilkogretim-online.org//?mno=61947 [Access: April 09, 2021]. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.261


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Asha Subba, M. Pandey, Sangeeta Jha, Ajeya Jha, Karma Gurmey Dolma. Sustainable Supply of Spring Water as a Social Challenge: A study of Seasonal Variations at Sikkim. EEO. 2021; 20(5): 2396-2401. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.261



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Asha Subba, M. Pandey, Sangeeta Jha, Ajeya Jha, Karma Gurmey Dolma. Sustainable Supply of Spring Water as a Social Challenge: A study of Seasonal Variations at Sikkim. EEO. (2021), [cited April 09, 2021]; 20(5): 2396-2401. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.261



Harvard Style

Asha Subba, M. Pandey, Sangeeta Jha, Ajeya Jha, Karma Gurmey Dolma (2021) Sustainable Supply of Spring Water as a Social Challenge: A study of Seasonal Variations at Sikkim. EEO, 20 (5), 2396-2401. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.261



Turabian Style

Asha Subba, M. Pandey, Sangeeta Jha, Ajeya Jha, Karma Gurmey Dolma. 2021. Sustainable Supply of Spring Water as a Social Challenge: A study of Seasonal Variations at Sikkim. Elementary Education Online, 20 (5), 2396-2401. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.261



Chicago Style

Asha Subba, M. Pandey, Sangeeta Jha, Ajeya Jha, Karma Gurmey Dolma. "Sustainable Supply of Spring Water as a Social Challenge: A study of Seasonal Variations at Sikkim." Elementary Education Online 20 (2021), 2396-2401. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.261



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Asha Subba, M. Pandey, Sangeeta Jha, Ajeya Jha, Karma Gurmey Dolma. "Sustainable Supply of Spring Water as a Social Challenge: A study of Seasonal Variations at Sikkim." Elementary Education Online 20.5 (2021), 2396-2401. Print. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.261



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Asha Subba, M. Pandey, Sangeeta Jha, Ajeya Jha, Karma Gurmey Dolma (2021) Sustainable Supply of Spring Water as a Social Challenge: A study of Seasonal Variations at Sikkim. Elementary Education Online, 20 (5), 2396-2401. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.261








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