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Research Article 


Adaptation of VB (Vartan Bhanji ) in Urban Centers: Tracking Signs of Cultural Lag in an Evolving Pakistan

Dr. Noreen Saher, Tasmia Matloob, Latafat Aziz, Anum Awan, Shayeema Farooqi.

Abstract
The scholarship has depicted that Vartan Bhanji (rural social institution of social exchange) has shaped itself in the urban settings of Pakistan (Alia, 2017; Saher & Mayrhofer 2014; Saher, 2010; Chaudhry 1999). While VB has adapted according to the formal expectations of the urban system (by avoiding written records and resorting to less open exchange of gift/services), it has also influenced the formal processes of urban institutions; including political parties, professional organizations, civil services and the military, leading to the personalization of the impersonal. Qadeer (1999) highlights it as a reflection of inconsistency and a sign of cultural lag. To date, this issue has not been explored and no published material is available on it. Considering this gap in literature, this paper is going to unravel this phenomenon and will contribute to the discourse on cultural lag. To meet the objectives of this study, qualitative research with in-depth interviews have been conducted with the female teachers of a public sector school. The results show that the respondents were explicitly aware of VB, they accepted the existence of VB based relations among colleagues, and use the three items of VB (i.e., daughters' rights, reciprocity and maang-a request for help which must be satisfied) to develop fictive relation (of two types) and an informal support system in a formal organization.

Key words: Vartan Bhanji, cultural lag, urbanization, working women, Pakistan


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Dr. Noreen Saher, Tasmia Matloob, Latafat Aziz, Anum Awan, Shayeema Farooqi. Adaptation of VB (Vartan Bhanji ) in Urban Centers: Tracking Signs of Cultural Lag in an Evolving Pakistan. EEO. 2021; 20(5): 3608-3613. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.397


Web Style

Dr. Noreen Saher, Tasmia Matloob, Latafat Aziz, Anum Awan, Shayeema Farooqi. Adaptation of VB (Vartan Bhanji ) in Urban Centers: Tracking Signs of Cultural Lag in an Evolving Pakistan. http://ilkogretim-online.org//?mno=67524 [Access: April 09, 2021]. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.397


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Dr. Noreen Saher, Tasmia Matloob, Latafat Aziz, Anum Awan, Shayeema Farooqi. Adaptation of VB (Vartan Bhanji ) in Urban Centers: Tracking Signs of Cultural Lag in an Evolving Pakistan. EEO. 2021; 20(5): 3608-3613. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.397



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Dr. Noreen Saher, Tasmia Matloob, Latafat Aziz, Anum Awan, Shayeema Farooqi. Adaptation of VB (Vartan Bhanji ) in Urban Centers: Tracking Signs of Cultural Lag in an Evolving Pakistan. EEO. (2021), [cited April 09, 2021]; 20(5): 3608-3613. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.397



Harvard Style

Dr. Noreen Saher, Tasmia Matloob, Latafat Aziz, Anum Awan, Shayeema Farooqi (2021) Adaptation of VB (Vartan Bhanji ) in Urban Centers: Tracking Signs of Cultural Lag in an Evolving Pakistan. EEO, 20 (5), 3608-3613. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.397



Turabian Style

Dr. Noreen Saher, Tasmia Matloob, Latafat Aziz, Anum Awan, Shayeema Farooqi. 2021. Adaptation of VB (Vartan Bhanji ) in Urban Centers: Tracking Signs of Cultural Lag in an Evolving Pakistan. Elementary Education Online, 20 (5), 3608-3613. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.397



Chicago Style

Dr. Noreen Saher, Tasmia Matloob, Latafat Aziz, Anum Awan, Shayeema Farooqi. "Adaptation of VB (Vartan Bhanji ) in Urban Centers: Tracking Signs of Cultural Lag in an Evolving Pakistan." Elementary Education Online 20 (2021), 3608-3613. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.397



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Dr. Noreen Saher, Tasmia Matloob, Latafat Aziz, Anum Awan, Shayeema Farooqi. "Adaptation of VB (Vartan Bhanji ) in Urban Centers: Tracking Signs of Cultural Lag in an Evolving Pakistan." Elementary Education Online 20.5 (2021), 3608-3613. Print. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.397



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Dr. Noreen Saher, Tasmia Matloob, Latafat Aziz, Anum Awan, Shayeema Farooqi (2021) Adaptation of VB (Vartan Bhanji ) in Urban Centers: Tracking Signs of Cultural Lag in an Evolving Pakistan. Elementary Education Online, 20 (5), 3608-3613. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.05.397








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