Construction of Nationalism amid war narratives in Pakistan’s history textbooks


  • Ikram Badshah
  • Iqra Ejaz
  • Jan Alam


War, Nationalism, History, Textbooks


The present study was designed to bring into view the militarized presentation of war narratives inculcated in our Punjab and Oxford history textbooks. The research intended to unfold the underlying jingoistic and war glorified dogmas within texts that has been imparted to Pakistani students. Content analysis of Pakistan studies textbooks of Oxford and Punjab textbook boards has been done from 6th to 10th grade. Students from four different educational institutions, both government and private schools, have
been made part of this study to scrutinize their perspective pertinent to war dogma with the help of a close ended questionnaire. The study has unearthed the patterns of chauvinistic writings by twisting or aggrandizing historical narratives of wars or dictators’ regime in Punjab textbooks. The glorification of war was rampant in Punjab textbooks of Pakistan studies in comparison to the slightly neutral and pluralistic historical representation of war events in Oxford textbooks. However, Students of both textbook boards
have reflected the bellicose jingoistic thoughts and perspectives, but the ratio was higher among Punjab textbook boards’ readers. Wars are portrayed as indispensable for survival amid rivals in Punjab history textbooks, which has profound impact on the young mind of students as their prime source of knowledge is textbooks.




How to Cite

Ikram Badshah, Iqra Ejaz, & Jan Alam. (2023). Construction of Nationalism amid war narratives in Pakistan’s history textbooks. Elementary Education Online, 20(4), 2912–2925. Retrieved from