Implementation of Pharmacogenomics Testing in Clinical Practice in Punjab, Pakistan: A KAP Survey of Healthcare Providers


  • Shahzada M. Naeem Nawaz
  • Majid Ali
  • Muhammad Nadeem
  • Muhammad Abdul Rehman


Pharmacogenomics; Clinical practice; Continuous Medical Education


Pharmacogenomics (PGx) in the clinical practice help to provide personalized care, which improves clinical outcomes of treatment. The implementation of PGx among healthcare providers has not been explored yet in Pakistan. The study aims to assess the knowledge, awareness, and perception of healthcare providers toward the implementation of PGx testing in the clinical practice in the Punjab, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey distributed to healthcare providers (Pharmacists and Physicians) from December 2019 to April 2020 at 15 government and privet hospitals. Regression analyses along with some descriptive statistical measures were computed using SPSS software. Among 250 surveys, 220 participants responded with 88.1% response rate. The healthcare professionals comprised
90 physicians and 130 pharmacists with 68.18% urban participants. The results showed a fair knowledge and awareness of PGx, they preferred to learn about PGx in form of Continuous Medical Education (CME). The perception of the respondents was positive toward the implementation of PGx testing. Further, results also revealed a significant positive effect of awareness on the perceived PGx practices. Pharmacists and Physicians with high perceived knowledge and awareness were more willing to implement the PGx in their clinical practice. Recourses availability (laboratory equipment availability), high cost and lack of knowledge were the most obstacles and challenges of PGx implementation. The study provides insights of the importance of channeling resources and of continuous education regarding PGx that help to provide personalized care in medication decisions and in reducing the incidence of Adverse
Drug Reactions (ADRs) in the Eastern Province hospitals.




How to Cite

Shahzada M. Naeem Nawaz, Majid Ali, Muhammad Nadeem, & Muhammad Abdul Rehman. (2023). Implementation of Pharmacogenomics Testing in Clinical Practice in Punjab, Pakistan: A KAP Survey of Healthcare Providers. Elementary Education Online, 20(4), 1203–1213. Retrieved from




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