Gender Self-efficacy, Perceptions and Mothers’ Portrayal in Televised Polio Messages in Sindh, Pakistan


  • Farheen Qasim Nizamani
  • Muhammad QasimNizamani
  • Sharjeela
  • Muhammad Umer Hayat


Television Representation, Gender roles, Mothers’ empowerment, Mothers’ Portrayals, and gender self-efficacy


Television exposure is considered a pillar of origination for awareness and attitude change in health messages. However, Pakistani televised polio messages, are not yet successful in mapping out the root causes of cultural restrictions imposed by patriarchal social structure on mothers’ contribution. Though mothers being the real caretakers of their children are oppressed from independent decision-making abilities for polio vaccination, particularly in Asian societies. Bandura (1999) discussed about gender roles and role of media in its social cognitive theory but did not identify the attitudes and perceptions of parents regarding health messages and its effects on parents’ health decision making process. Bandura (1999) also did not explore the role of television in empowering mothers for taking health decisions for children. Hence, this research fills the gap by critically analysing the narratives of parents that depict mothers as marginalised segment of the society and discourages them as equal contributors in polio elimination process. The methodological formulation applies critical investigation of lower middle-class parents with the help of qualitative research framework through in-depth interviews. Nonrepresentation of homely fathers’, mothers’ objectified and suppressed positions, patriarchal superiority, unequal distribution of health decision-making and low confidence of mothers were identified as potent constituents in extension of theoretical perspective for selfefficacy and gender representation of Bandura’s social cognitive theory (1999). Thus, in this manner, this research unfolds ideas for policymakers to redesign polio awareness campaigns in country for impartial gender representation in televised messages by considering the importance of mothers’ empowerment in polio decision making process.




How to Cite

Farheen Qasim Nizamani, SITI ZANARIAH AHMAD ISHAK, Muhammad QasimNizamani, Sharjeela, & Muhammad Umer Hayat. (2023). Gender Self-efficacy, Perceptions and Mothers’ Portrayal in Televised Polio Messages in Sindh, Pakistan. Elementary Education Online, 20(5), 3115–3124. Retrieved from




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