ISSN 1305-3515
 

Research Article 


Effects of RTI on letter naming and spelling among kindergarteners at risk for reading failure

Mourad Ali Eissa.

Abstract
The response-to-intervention model provides early intervention to struggling children and helps them to increases their academic achievement, as it provides immediate intervention to children who are likely to be at risk of academic failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of response-to-intervention model on developing acquisition of letter naming knowledge and spelling knowledge among kindergarteners at risk for reading failure. Thirty-six kindergarten children (Mean age= 5.03, SD=0.705; number of female children=12, and number of male children=24) identified as at risk for reading failure participated in this study .Children were administered a pre-reading skills test (developed by Mourad Ali, 2014 to screen for children who are at risk for reading failure). Children who had low achievement scores on the test (at least 1.5standard deviations [SD] below the population mean) were included. Letter Naming Knowledge Test and Spelling Knowledge Test were employed. In order to analyze the data from the pre- and post-test, the author used two-way ANOVA analysis and t-test. Two-way ANOVA analysis and t-test results revealed the effectiveness of response-to-intervention model on developing acquisition of letter naming knowledge and spelling knowledge among kindergarteners at risk for reading failure.

Key words: Response-to-intervention model, letter naming knowledge, spelling knowledge, kindergarten, reading failure


 
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Pubmed Style

Mourad Ali Eissa. Effects of RTI on letter naming and spelling among kindergarteners at risk for reading failure. EEO. 2020; 19(4): 2032-2041. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2020.763216


Web Style

Mourad Ali Eissa. Effects of RTI on letter naming and spelling among kindergarteners at risk for reading failure. http://ilkogretim-online.org//?mno=121825 [Access: August 11, 2020]. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2020.763216


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Mourad Ali Eissa. Effects of RTI on letter naming and spelling among kindergarteners at risk for reading failure. EEO. 2020; 19(4): 2032-2041. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2020.763216



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Mourad Ali Eissa. Effects of RTI on letter naming and spelling among kindergarteners at risk for reading failure. EEO. (2020), [cited August 11, 2020]; 19(4): 2032-2041. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2020.763216



Harvard Style

Mourad Ali Eissa (2020) Effects of RTI on letter naming and spelling among kindergarteners at risk for reading failure. EEO, 19 (4), 2032-2041. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2020.763216



Turabian Style

Mourad Ali Eissa. 2020. Effects of RTI on letter naming and spelling among kindergarteners at risk for reading failure. Elementary Education Online, 19 (4), 2032-2041. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2020.763216



Chicago Style

Mourad Ali Eissa. "Effects of RTI on letter naming and spelling among kindergarteners at risk for reading failure." Elementary Education Online 19 (2020), 2032-2041. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2020.763216



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Mourad Ali Eissa. "Effects of RTI on letter naming and spelling among kindergarteners at risk for reading failure." Elementary Education Online 19.4 (2020), 2032-2041. Print. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2020.763216



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Mourad Ali Eissa (2020) Effects of RTI on letter naming and spelling among kindergarteners at risk for reading failure. Elementary Education Online, 19 (4), 2032-2041. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2020.763216